Friday, July 3, 2020
BIO 1121 Unit 2: Solution Describes Its Acidity Or Alkalinity (Research Paper Sample) Content: BIO 1121 Unit 2 AssignmentAccurately measuring the volume of liquids, weighing chemicals, and adjusting the pH of solutions are routine procedures in a working laboratory environment. This assignment is designed to provide you with an overview of the general skills and knowledge you would need to perform such tasks.Before completing this assignment you should ensure you have read chapter 2 of your text book particularly the section entitled pH, Buffers, Acids, and Bases. Answers should be concise and well written. Make sure you correctly explain your thought process and provide all the necessary information.The questions are available on the following worksheet: Question 1: The pH of a solution describes its acidity or alkalinity: Describe how pH and H3O+concentration are related and explain why diluting an acid raises the pH, but diluting a base lowers the pH.Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) is a commonly used buffer for experiments in biology, because its pH and ion concentrations are similar to those in mammalian organisms. It works in a similar fashion to the blood plasma buffer mentioned in the textbook, but using dihydrogen phosphate ions and hydrogen phosphate ions for buffering.Itsconcentrationrelative to hydroxide is a direct measure of thepHof a solution. It can be formed when an acid is present in water or simply in pure water. ... As H+ionsare formed, they bond with H2O molecules in the solution to form H3O+ (the hydronium ion).PH is generally calculated the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration in solution. If you dilute an acidic solution (with water), you lower the [H+] concentration, if you dilute a basic solution you increase the [H+]. You could also think of it as the [H+] concentration in both cases approaching the [H+] concentration of pure water (pH ~7). So the pH of an acid will increase and the pH of a base will decrease.Question 2: Based on the equation below, which ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion donor (acid) and which ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion acceptor (base) in PBS?H2PO4-(aq) H+ (aq) + HPO42-(aq)HPO42H2PO4-The composition of PBS is 0.137M NaCl, 0.012M Phosphate, 0.027M KCl, pH 7.4. Below is the protocol to make 1 liter of 10x concentrate PBS.Combine the following: * 80g NaCl * 2g KCl * 14.4g Na2HPO4(dibasic anhydrous) * 2.4g KH2PO4(monobasic anhydrous) * 800mL distilled H2O 1 Adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl 2 Add H2O to 1L 3 Autoclave for 20 minutes on liquid cycle. Store at room temperature.Question 3: Which ions are being produced by this process, assuming that each of the chemical compounds dissociate into their constituent parts once they are dissolved in water?Preparation of the correct buffer is key to any good biological experiment and it is important that you understand how to calculate the mass of each chemical required to make that buffer and what the resulting concentration of those constituents will be in moles per liter.Your text book explains that moles are just a way to express the amount of a substance, such that one mole is equal to 6.02 x 1023particles of that substance. These particles can be can be atoms, molecules, ions etc, so 1 mole of water is equal to 6.02 x 1023water molecules, or 1 mole of Na+is equal to 6.02 x 1023Na+ions. Since different chemicals have different molecular weights (based on the number of protons and neutrons each atom contains) 1 mole or 6.02 x 1023atoms of oxygen (O) will have a mass of 16g whereas 1 mole or 6.02 x 1023atoms of sodium (Na) will have a mass of 23gYou can read more about the definition of moles here if you wish/science/mole-chemistryAlthough you may sometimes see it written as g/liter, the concentration of solutions is more often described in term of molarity since it better defines the chemical properties of a solution because it is proportional to the number of molecules or ions in solution, irrespective of molecular mass of its constituents. However, it is not possible to measure moles on a labor atory balance, so in the first instance chemicals are measured by mass (milligrams, grams, kilograms etc) and the number of moles is calculated using the known molecular mass (often called molecular weight and abbreviated to M.W.) of the chemical. As indicated earlier, the molecular mass of a chemical is based on the number of protons and neutrons that is contained in each atom (egNaCl is made up of one molecule of Na, M.W. = 22.99g and one molecule of Cl, M.W. = 35.45g, so the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g). These values can be found in the periodic table however the molecular mass of chemicals is generally provided by any vendors of the products and so can also be found on various suppliers websites.When the concentrations of solutions are as described as molar, this refers to number ofmoles per literega 3 molar solution of NaCl will contain 3 moles of NaCl in 1 litre of water. As indicated above, the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g, so in 58.44g there are 6.02 x 1023NaCl moleculesie1 mole. So fo r 3 moles of NaCl you would need to dissolve 175.32g in 1 liter of water (175.32/58.44 =3) whereas If you only dissolved 29.22g of NaCl in 1 liter of water this would result in a 0.5 molar solution (29.22/58.44= 0.5)Question 4: Using this webpage below calculate (to 2 decimal places) the molecular mass for each of the compounds used to make PBS (the values here differ slightly from the periodic table found in your text book due to rounding errors).http://stedmansonline.com/webFiles/Dict-Stedmans28/APP19.pdfCreate the following table and fill it in with the mass of each component required to make 1 liter of 10 x PBS (the recipe for 10x PBS is below question 2) and their final molar concentration in the buffer calculated as described above.Compound formula Molecular mass (in g/mol) Mass of compound per liter of 10x PBS (in g) Molar concentration (in mol/l) NaCl 8.0 80g 137 KCl 0.2 2g 2.7 Na2HPO4 1.4 14.4g 10 KH2PO4 0.24 2.4g 1.8 Question 5:As previously stated, the concentration of Na Cl, KCl and Phosphate inworking strength 1 x PBS is 0.137M NaCl, 0.012M Phosphate, 0.027M KCl, pH 7.4How do they compare to the concentrations you calculated for 10x PBS?Watch the following videos * "Using an Electronic Balance" from Bio-Rad tutorials: -rad.com/webroot/web/html/lse/support/tutorial_electronic_balance_wndw.html * Using a pH Meter" from Bio-Rad tutorials:-rad.com/webroot/web/html/lse/support/tutorial_using-a-ph-meter_wndw.html * "Making a PBS solution" from Community College Consortium for Bioscience Credentials:https://youtu.be/S6XspSNnhWgRole of pbs is usually to maintain the osmolality and ph of solution at their required level. The meaning of reaching from 10X to 1X is tenfold dilution of PBS in the solution. E.g 1ml of PBS (10X) and 9 ml of diluent will make concentration of PBS to 1X in that solution.Simpler way of dilution is calculated as:Required concentration/given concentration X total volume= volume from stockHere required is 1X, given is 10X and total vol ume can be 10ml. 1/10x 10= 1. So 1 ml from 10X stock need to be taken and total volume is makeup by adding 9ml of diluent. (Total volume-volume of stock taken)Similarly if total volume is 50ml then, 1/10 x50= 5 (50-5=45), 5ml stock and 45ml diluentIf dilution is changed from 10X to 50X, then calculation will be 1/50 x50=1ml (50-1=49), 1ml stock and 49ml diluentQuestion 6: What is the first thing to do after putting a weighin...
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Are Autoimmune Diseases Killing You? The innate/adaptive immune systems are supposed to protect you Ã¢â¬â what happens when they strike back? Autoimmune diseases: The Immune system is provided by the body to keep the human system healthy, and virus/bacteria free. Autoimmune diseases occur when a T lymphocyte cell escapes the lymphoid and mistakes an organ/system/tissue for a virus, this rogue T cell than instructs B lymphocytes cells to develop antibodies. These special antibodies are known as Ã¢â¬ËautoantibodiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (special blood proteins that target the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s body parts). Autoimmune diseases are supposedly triggered, this is a broad group ranging from being inherited or viruses/hormones. Currently there is approx. 80 different types of autoimmune diseases globally, then broadly grouped into two categories Ã¢â¬Ëorgan specificÃ¢â¬â¢ (where the diseases effects one particular body part) and Ã¢â¬Ënon-organ specificÃ¢â¬â¢ (where no one organ is targeted, but maybe an entire system). One in twenty people are diagnosed with an autoimmune disease, however depending on the disease the number increases example a rare disease may affect one in a million people. What is the impact? Autoimmune diseases are a huge health issue in Australia and New Zealand. The negative effects can be quite severe, depending on the disease. A sample of the diseases listed are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Diabetes (type 1) Ã¢â¬ ¢ GravesÃ¢â¬â¢ disease Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inflammatory bowel disease Ã¢â¬ ¢ Multiple sclerosis Ã¢â¬ ¢ Scleroderma Ã¢â¬ ¢ Lupus Erythematosus Lupus has a hugeShow MoreRelatedStem Research On Stem Cell Research1530 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinsignificant, these cells have the potential to develop into any cell during the early development stages. The goal of stem cell research is to use these cells to cure degenerative and terminal illnesses such as AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s, ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s, heart disease, lung disease, and various types of cancer. The purpose of researching these stem cells is to see what else they can develop into thus creating more possible cures for patients. It seems like a simple science experiment but it is truly the exact oppositeRead MoreAdvancement in Diabetes Technology 1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesvery promising. Diabetes or diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease that has no know cure. There are three main types of diabetes, Type one diabetes, type two diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Each one has a different way of being treated and different causes Type one diabetes is caused when the autoimmune system attacks and eventually kills the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin. There is no know reason why the autoimmune disease attacks the beta cells. Type two diabetes is causedRead MoreFoodborne Illness Short Answer Questions Essay661 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesFoodborne illness Short Answer Questions Sci/162 Foodborne Illness 1. What is the infectious agent (pathogen) that causes this infectious disease? For example, the name of the bacteria, virus, or parasite. Hepatitis A is an infectious agent. Hepatitis A is also a liver disease. Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. The inflammation can be very painful. It becomes red and swells up becoming like a hard rock. This is caused when tissues of our bodyRead MoreA Description Of The Disease1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPart A: Disease Research The name of your disease: African sleeping sickness A basic description of the disease: Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or (African) sleeping sickness is a vector-borne parasitic disease transmitted through the tsetse fly. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s caused through infection from protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (T.b. gambiense) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (T.b. rhodesiense) who belong to the genus Trypanosoma. The disease is transmitted to humans by tsetse fly bitesRead MorePsychology And Economics On A Pre Med Path2947 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesschool. Antiphospholipid syndrome is quite fascinating in how rare yet severe it is. I chose antiphospholipid syndrome because I am currently working on a project with this disease at the Molecular Human Genetics Lab at Nationwide Childrens Hospital Research Institute. My interest has only grown, as it is a prevalent disease among pregnant women, leading to miscarriage almost every time. In the coming years, I hope to continue my research as well as attend a top college in training for my intensiveRead MoreThe Immune System For Agents1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesresponse. Macrophages do the same, as well. Other members of the innate immune family are neutrophils. These cells are often involved in cleaning up debris and wound healing. Natural killer cells or NK cells: these are major cells involved in directly killing cells or even tumor cells when they re stimulated by other parts of the immune system that we ll cover. Also, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, and gamma delta T cells. All of these members of the innate immune family do pretty much the same thingRead MoreHigh Fat And Low Carb Diet932 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand have been never had a problem with weight, then why is everyone so surprised that large quantities of GMO food (genetically modified food that has been changed in a lab), featuring modern-day gluten, has dramatically increased obesity and is killing more people than cigarette smoking? What about the people who have lost weight with the low-fat and high-carb diet? A recent study done by a Harvard team of professors looks at the difference between high-fat and high-carb and their effects for weightRead MoreBone Formation Of Blood Cells1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstructure, Body weight, Family History, and Gender. Controllable Risk Factors: Alcohol consumption, Smoking, Medications, Hormone Levels, Low calcium intake, How much you exercise, and Low food intake Symptoms of Osteoporosis: Back pain, Height loss, Stooped posture, and Unexpected bone fracture. Often labeled however, as a silent disease because of the lack of symptoms until an unexpected bone fracture. In all, MarisaÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother has a few options concerning her treatment for osteoporosis. The firstRead MoreWhat is The Paleo Diet? Essay1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages There have also been advancements in modern medicine such as finding cures and lowering the victims for disease that use to affect people greatly like polio, measles, smallpox and malaria. However along with any advancement there are some downsides, some that are obvious at plain sight, and some that sometimes take a while to be noticed. One of the possible reasons why various diseases are more prevent[able]now than in our evolutionary past could be out change in the food we eat. We not onlyRead MoreDiabetes Mellitus : An Autoimmune Dysfunction1815 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesDiabetes mellitus is an autoimmune dysfunction characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from lack of insulin, lack of insulin resistance, or both with the involvement of destruction of cells known as beta cells, which produce insulin in the organ called pancreas. The pathophysiology behind this metabolic disorder is that there are two types of diabetes mellitus, Type 1 and Type 2 and are two very distinct entities. For those who predispose to Type 1 diabetes, a triggering event, possibly a viral
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Option 1: Economic Advisement Paper Brittany McCarty, Jake Vickers, amp; Michelle Williams Learning Team B Eco 372 July 11, 2013 Dr. Samuel Imarhiagbe Two Economic Theories Modernizing over the decades, two main theories support economists, proposals, arguments, and predictions. The first theory is the Classical model perspective and the second theory is the Keynesian model perspective. The first theory promotes a hands-off approach and the second a government intervention approach. The first theory believes that if left alone, the natural market forces would right themselves and eventually achieve the proper balance. The second theory believes that people have to live through the process ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The BLS reports that the average annual expenditures per consumer ascended 3.3% in 2011 with a decline of 2% in 2010. The main parts of household consumption rose in 2011 with an 8% advancement in transportation expenses were the largest ratio surge with all major components. The total expenses for food, college student funding, divorce financial support, and charitable donations increas ed by 5.4%. Spending also increases in health care expenses, housing, apparel, entertainment, and personal insurance and pensions (Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 2012). Consumer expenditures rising during this term will move the aggregate demand curve to the right as increased spending increases demand. This BLS report indicates that the next term should show statistical aggregate demand increases, and according to the Classical model perspective encourages a laissez-faire approach concerning correction of the long-term economic factors (Colander, 2010). The Classical model works perfectly as consumer expenditures are trending on the rise when factoring consumer expenditures. Until a more apparent downturn shows itself, the invisible hand should continue to work naturally. Expectations 2012 In October of this year, the Bureau of Economic Analysis reports the Real Gross Domestic Product which is the United States production of goods and servicesShow MoreRelated Mcdonalds Expands Of Vietnam : Mcdonalds Essay1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Contents Expansion Planning 3 International Business Expansion 3 Regional Trade Agreement 4 Affordable Foreign Taxes 4 Financial and Technological Supports 4 Labor Hiring Methods 5 Advertising Strategies 5 Strategic Locations 5 Management Advisement 6 Conclusion 6 MCDONALDS EXPANDS TO VIETNAM Expansion Planning There are various essential reasons for McDonalds expands to Vietnam, include gain market shares in the global market, long-term growth in the South-East Asia, and increase theRead MoreThe World Bank : Professional Organization Report Essay1477 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesincrease global economic growth. Created in 1944 they have locations in five countries, each managed by their host country and are headquarter in Washington, DC. With over 10,000 employees the World Bank supplies countries with the tools needed to progress and sustain. According to the Ã¢â¬Å"What We DoÃ¢â¬ page The World Bank has two missions which they base all their work on. The first is to bring down to below three percent the number of people living on $1.99 and to promote the economic growth of theRead MoreForeign Internal Defense Of North Africa1504 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshave U.S. advisors stay with their students in battle which lead to success in Somalia10. In 2012 Senator Jim Inhofe said that Ã¢â¬Å"if we can train the Africans, then when problems come up we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to send our kids over thereÃ¢â¬ 11. In theory, and on paper, this seems accurate. However, what has played out in Mali, Libya, Tunisia, Somalia, and many other countries in Africa in the past 4 years shows that his statement is not accurate at all. The United States has trained the Africans, equipped the AfricansRead Moreeco3721430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstudents with the basic theories, concepts, terminology, and uses of macroeconomics. Students learn practical applications for macroeconomics in their personal and professional lives through assimilation of fundamental concepts and analysis of actual economic events. Policies Faculty and students will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this documentRead MoreWomen and Cosmetic Surgeires Essay1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnegative impacts in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life. As the economic boost, people no longer have to spend 90 percent of their income on food, instead they do investment on land property, luxury goods that can hedging or even make money after an investment cycle. The boost economy also drives the media industry grow rapidly which urging a group of super models and fashion actresses well-known among people especially female group through magazines, TV advisements. The clothes that models wear and the make upsRead MoreAggregate Demand and Supply Model - Economic Advisement Essay1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesModel Economic Advisement With a nominal GDP estimated at more than 15 trillion it is clearly the United States economy is one of the largest in the world. A person must have lived in a cave underground for the past several years to not know that the current state of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is in desperate need of improvement. Many academic institutions have thought about how the economy arrived at its current state and how can it be restored. Some would advocate not using the same economic policiesRead MoreSupply Chain Management and Anticipatory Logistics1234 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLogistics (AL). I will further explain how and why they are used in the military, and how it can be utilized in the corporate world. I will also provide examples of private corporations that are already effectively utilizing anticipatory logistics. This paper will provide facts and opinions from several different reports and write-ups from subject matter experts, news reports, and other documents. The Supply Chain Management (SCM) Helmuth von Moltke said The problem is to grasp, in innumerable specialRead MoreOnline Learning Vs. Online Education1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesadvantages and disadvantages of distance learning vs. face-to-face instruction. One disadvantage is a lack of interaction with a professor during instruction. Another disadvantage is traditional enrollment provides more degree options, counselor advisement and student developing applied skills. On the other hand, the advantage of distance learning is costlier efficient and less time-consuming than classroom instruction. Furthermore, online instruction is increasing at a faster rate. Online higherRead MoreWhat Constitutes a Profession? Essay1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHaili Jiang GE6 The Professions and Public Interest in American Life Midterm paper 1 Instructor: Shyam During normal usage, it seems that the terms Ã¢â¬Å"professionÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"occupationÃ¢â¬ are almost identical and are interchangeable. Generally they both define the work people do for a living. However, after delving into their meanings, one can easily notice that the word profession is a bit more advanced than occupation. In other words, there are peculiar criteria or characteristics that an occupationRead MoreThe Struggle Of Finding A Job1568 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesunemployment rates by educational attainment. This is an important examination because it demonstrates an important trend to the conducts that affect employment and unemployment (Ã¢â¬Å"The Condition of EducationÃ¢â¬ 2015). This is important to mention in the paper because it amplifies how different educational completions can increase or decrease redundancy rates over the years. Career Services How Are The Existing Services Not Helping Students Sufficiently Prepare? There is a dearth of information on the
Friday, May 15, 2020
The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World were famous even in antiquity, but not everyone loved gorgeous architectural marvels. Heres a tale of the ancient worlds most infamous arsonist, who burned down one of the greatest buildings of the Mediterranean. The Burning of the Temple The burning of the Temple of Artemis at EphesusÃ in modern Turkey, which was first built in the sixth century B.C.E., happened on the same day Alexander the Great was born in 356 B.C.E.Ã According to Plutarch, a guy named Hegesias the Magnesian quipped that ArtemisÃ (Diana for the Romans), goddess of childbirth, among other things, was too busy welcoming the future king of Macedon and much of the Mediterranean into the world to keep an eye on the temple. The Ephesian priests, dubbed the Magi, took the destruction of the temple as a much bigger portent. Looking upon the temples disaster as a sign of further disaster, [they] ran about beating their faces and crying aloud that woe and great calamity for Asia had that day been born. Of course, that danger was baby Alexander, who wouldÃ eventually brutally conquer most of Asia. The Ultimate Punishment:Ã Being Forgotten Forever! The criminal responsible was a man named Herostratus. What made him commit such a heinous act? According to first-century authorÃ ValeriusÃ Maximus: Here is appetite for glory involving sacrilege. A man was found to plan the burning of the temple of EphesianÃ Diana so that through the destruction of this most beautiful building his name might be spread through the whole world. This madness he unveiled when put upon the rack. In otherÃ words, after being tortured, Herostratus admitted he torchedÃ the temple for personal fame.Ã Maximus added, The Ephesians had wisely abolished the memory of the villain by decree, but TheopompusÃ¢â¬â¢s eloquent genius included him in his history. Herostratus was the most hated man around...so much so that aÃ damnatioÃ (meaning his memory was to be obliterated forever)Ã was decreed! The second-century C.E. Roman writer Aulus Gellius noted that Herostratus was dubbed inlaudabilis, namely, one who is worthy neither of mention nor remembrance, andÃ is never to be named. It was decreed that no one should ever mention the name of the man who had burned the temple of Diana at Ephesus.Ã If Herostratuss name andÃ memory were banned,Ã then how do we know about him? Most sources followed the rules and never mentioned his name, but Strabo disagreed. He was the first to break the rules in his Geography, stating the Ephesian temple was set on fire by a certain Herostratus.Ã The priest Aelian evenÃ associated HerostratusÃ with atheists and enemies of the gods. After Herostratus did his dastardly deed, the Ephesians didnt hesitate in resurrecting their holy spot. According to Strabo, the citizens constructed one more magnificent. Howd they get the cash for such an extravagant building? Strabo said the tax collectors brought in ornaments of the women, contributions from private property, and the money arising from the sale of pillars of the former temple to pay for a new one. So the temple was even more awesome than before, all thanks to a firebug.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Stanley Milgram was a well-known intelligent American social psychologist. He was born August 15, 1933 in New York. Before the presents of Stanley Milgram his parents Samuel and Adele Milgram were Jewish immigrants from the Eastern part of Europe. Around that time in Europe that was when Adolf Hitler was on the rise so Milgram parents hurried and fled to New York in America (Blass, 2004). While being in New York Milgram parents both had jobs as a baker and raised him and his other two siblings Marjorie Milgram and Joel Milgram (Blass, 2004). Growing up Milgram was always a brilliant child in 1950 he graduated from James Monroe High School and it had only took him 3 years to graduate. He was also a classmate of Philip Zimbardo who also became a successful psychologist later on in his career (Miller, 1997). Moving on, In 1954 Milgram earned his bachelor degree in political science from Queen College. Milgram always had the interest to learn about social problems (Miller, 1997). So over time in 1960 Milgram earned his doctorate degree from Harvard University and he was taught from a clever instructor Gordon Allport. At Harvard University he majored in social psychology which was mixed with a lot of social psychology, sociology, anthropology, and clinical psychology (Blass, 2004). After attending Harvard Milgram became an assistant teacher at Yale University. Furthermore, while Milgram was at Yale he did many psychological experiments. However one study thatShow MoreRelatedHistorical Reference Of Social Psychology1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Historical Reference of Social Psychology Social psychology uses scientific methods to understand how peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions and behaviors are influenced by the actual presence or the implied presence of others. Social psychology is an integrative field that builds the gap between psychology and sociology. Sociology, on the other hand, is the scientific study of human behavior. In addition, social psychology is a comparatively new field that originated in the early 20th century. In 1954 Gordon AllportRead MoreThe Causes Of Obedience From Research By Milgram ( 1974 ) And His Contemporaries1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesresearch by Milgram (1974) and his Contemporaries. Stanley Milgram was a Psychologist at Yale. Obedience is an essential part in the format of humanity, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s destructiveness has been investigated throughout time. Stanley Milgram organized a research to test the destructiveness of obedience however, Milgram wanted to investigate why ordinary people are keen to obey an authority figure and commit evil deeds even when it goes against their beliefs. Milgram used social psychology concepts to explainRead MoreThe Milgram Experiment1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Milgram Experiment Stanley Milgram, a famous social psychologist, and student of Solomon Asch, conducted a controversial experiment in 1961, investigating obedience to authority (1974). The experiment was held to see if a subject would do something an authority figure tells them, even if it conflicts with their personal beliefs and morals. He even once said, The social psychology of this century reveals a major lesson: often it is not so much the kind of person a man is as the kind of situationRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"In 1961, Stanley Milgram, A Psychologist At Yale University,872 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"In 1961, Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, conducted an experiment on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. He examined the justifications for acts of genocide given by those accused at the World War II Nuremberg War Criminal trials. Their defense often was based on obedience,Ã¢â¬ and that they were just following orders from their superiors. The procedure was that the participant was paired with another person and they drew straws to find out who wouldRead MoreSocial Identity Theory And Fees Must Fall Protests Essay1257 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSocial Identity Theory and Fees Must Fall Protests 1411588 Phoenix Falconer-Pincus Protests play a highly significant role in generating awareness of a certain topic, grievance or issue that may affect certain demographics or groups of people. The below essay aims to explore the connection between social and collective identity, and its influence and importance in protests. This will be done by discussing the Ã¢â¬Å"FeesMustFallÃ¢â¬ movement that was aimed at getting free tertiary education in South AfricaRead MoreMilgram Experiment : What Was The Intent?1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdid Hitler condemn so many people to death and question why he was hated by them?Ã¢â¬ Well that is exactly why Stanley Milgram conducted experiments to test how far an ordinary person would inflict pain onto a stranger. The Nazi killing was brutal and inhumane but the people conflicting death upon thousands felt no remorse or guilt so the Milgram Experiment was used to finally get answers. Milgram concluded that many will go to extreme lengths to obey authority and tend to believe w hat they are doing isRead MoreMilgram Experiment : What Was The Intent?1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Why did the subordinates of Adolph Hitler blindly follow his immoral orders?Ã¢â¬ Well, that is exactly why Stanley Milgram conducted experiments to test how far an ordinary person would go to inflict pain onto a stranger. The Nazi killing was brutal and inhumane, but the people conflicting death upon thousands felt no remorse or guilt so the Milgram Experiment was used to finally get answers. Milgram concluded that many will go to extreme lengths to obey authority and tend to believe what they are doingRead MoreSocial Psychology : An Individual1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmeaning of social psychology will be introduced. The differences and similarities social psychology shares with certain fields of psychology will be clarified throughout this essay. Specific subjects such as attitudes, group behaviors, and other related sources will be cited throughout this essay. Some of the r esearch methods used in social psychology to determine how individuals affect groups or how groups affect an individual will be discussed in this essay. Keywords: group behaviors, social cognitionRead MoreObedience Is The Psychological Mechanism That Links Individual Action1065 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesindividual action to political purpose.Ã¢â¬ (Milgram, 1963). As a Psychologist at Yale University, Milgram proposed an experiment mainly focusing on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. In the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, Stanley Milgram analyzed justifications for genocide acts by those accused during World War II. The Nuremberg War Criminal trials, States the people were thought of them as simply following orders from their higher ranks. His theory focuses on how humans think and how it linksRead MoreResearch Paper On Milgram Experiment1787 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMilgram Experiment Research Paper In 1961, Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, conducted a controversial experiment on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. He examined the justifications for acts of genocide given by those accused at the World War II Nuremberg War Criminal trials. Their defense often was based on obedience,Ã¢â¬ and that they were Ã¢â¬Å"just following orders from their superiorsÃ¢â¬ (McLeod, Saul. Milgram Experiment, Simply Psychology). The procedure
UWP23 Yanbo Yang Paper 4 Ã¢â¬â Mini Research Paper The American Value of Asking Questions I. BACKGROUND Culture shock is the unavoidable byproduct of someone experiencing a new culture for the first time. A particularly acute form of culture shock is felt by international students studying abroad every day. For the Chinese students studying in America, they face a large number of problematic instances of culture shock which impact their ability to earn a quality education in the United States such as classroom culture. Specifically, Chinese students make a point not to ask questions in and out of the classroom because of how they were raised. In an article posted to Indiana UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s student orientation website (Ã¢â¬Å"3 Big Differences,Ã¢â¬ 2013), school administrators note that Chinese students are taught to remain quiet in class because Ã¢â¬Å"they have been trained not to speak their minds and not to raise any conversation that has an opposite or different opinion to the instructorÃ¢â¬â¢s teach.Ã¢â¬ The unified mindset that pervades much of Chinese society possess es numerous flaws including studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ inability or extreme apprehension at asking questions for what it might say about them. II. ARGUMENT While the Chinese education system might be structured to deal with this kind of thinking in the classroom, Chinese students learning in American classrooms face the looming challenge of not getting left behind. I have chosen to focus both on the reasoning behind many Chinese students notShow MoreRelatedWhy Married American Men Commit Extramarital Affairs861 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesunfaithful towards their wives. 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Respond to the position made by Milton Freedman on corporate social responsibility at this site (if this does not connect directly pleaseÃ copy and past on a separate web page on the URL line): http://www. ethicsinbusiness. net/case-studies/the-social-responsibility-of-business-is-to-increase-its-profits/ Do you agree or disagree with Friedmans position? Why? What is most positive about his position? What is most negative about his position? This was written in 1970, does it apply in todays global/high techÃ economy? Why or why not? The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits * An Executive Summary Ã¢â¬â The Social Responsibility of Business it to Increase its Profits The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits by Milton Friedman The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970. Copyright @ 1970 by The New York Times Company. When I hear businessmen speak eloquently about the Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibilities of business in a free-enterprise system,Ã¢â¬ I am reminded of the wonderful line about the Frenchman who discovered at the age of 70 that he had been speaking prose all his life. The businessmen believe that they are defending free enÃ terprise when they declaim that business is not concerned Ã¢â¬Å"merelyÃ¢â¬ with profit but also with promoting desirable Ã¢â¬Å"socialÃ¢â¬ ends; that business has a Ã¢â¬Å"social conscienceÃ¢â¬ and takes seriously its responsibilities for providing emÃ ployment, eliminating discrimination, avoidÃ ing pollution and whatever else may be the catchwords of the contemporary crop of reÃ formers. In fact they areÃ¢â¬âor would be if they or anyone else took them seriouslyÃ¢â¬âpreachÃ ing pure and unadulterated socialism. BusiÃ nessmen who talk this way are unwitting pupÃ pets of the intellectual forces that have been undermining the basis of a free society these past decades. The discussions of the Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibiliÃ ties of businessÃ¢â¬ are notable for their analytical looseness and lack of rigor. What does it mean to say that Ã¢â¬Å"businessÃ¢â¬ has responsibilities? Only people can have responsibilities. A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but Ã¢â¬Å"businessÃ¢â¬ as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities, even in this vague sense. The first step toward clarity in examining the doctrine of the social responsibility of business is to ask precisely what it implies for whom. Presumably, the individuals who are to be responsible are businessmen, which means inÃ dividual proprietors or corporate executives. Most of the discussion of social responsibility is directed at corporations, so in what follows I shall mostly neglect the individual proprietors and speak of corporate executives. In a free-enterprise, private-property sysÃ tem, a corporate executive is an employee of the owners of the business. He has direct reÃ sponsibility to his employers. That responsiÃ bility is to conduct the business in accordance with their desires, which generally will be to make as much money as possible while conÃ forming to the basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom. Of course, in some cases his employers may have a different objective. A group of persons might establish a corporation for an eleemosynary purposeÃ¢â¬âfor examÃ ple, a hospital or a school. The manager of such a corporation will not have money profit as his objective but the rendering of certain services. In either case, the key point is that, in his capacity as a corporate executive, the manager is the agent of the individuals who own the corporation or establish the eleemosynary institution, and his primary responsibility is to them. Needless to say, this does not mean that it is easy to judge how well he is performing his task. But at least the criterion of performance is straightforward, and the persons among whom a voluntary contractual arrangement exists are clearly defined. Of course, the corporate executive is also a person in his own right. As a person, he may have many other responsibilities that he recÃ ognizes or assumes voluntarilyÃ¢â¬âto his family, his conscience, his feelings of charity, his church, his clubs, his city, his country. He ma}. feel impelled by these responsibilities to deÃ vote part of his income to causes he regards as worthy, to refuse to work for particular corpoÃ rations, even to leave his job, for example, to join his countryÃ¢â¬â¢s armed forces. Ifwe wish, we may refer to some of these responsibilities as Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibilities. But in these respects he is acting as a principal, not an agent; he is spending his own money or time or energy, not the money of his employers or the time or energy he has contracted to devote to their purposes. If these are Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibiliÃ ties,Ã¢â¬ they are the social responsibilities of inÃ dividuals, not of business. What does it mean to say that the corpoÃ rate executive has a Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibilityÃ¢â¬ in his capa city as businessman? If this statement is not pure rhetoric, it must mean that he is to act in some way that is not in the interest of his employers. For example, that he is to refrain from increasing the price of the product in order to contribute to the social objective of preventing inflation, even though a price in crease would be in the best interests of the corporation. Or that he is to make expendiÃ tures on reducing pollution beyond the amount that is in the best interests of the corÃ poration or that is required by law in order to contribute to the social objective of improving the environment. Or that, at the expense of corporate profits, he is to hire Ã¢â¬Å"hardcoreÃ¢â¬ unÃ employed instead of better qualified available workmen to contribute to the social objective of reducing poverty. In each of these cases, the corporate execÃ utive would be spending someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s money for a general social interest. Insofar as his actions in accord with his Ã¢â¬Å"social responsiÃ bilityÃ¢â¬ reduce returns to stockholders, he is spending their money. Insofar as his actions raise the price to customers, he is spending the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ money. Insofar as his actions lower the wages of some employees, he is spending their money. The stockholders or the customers or the employees could separately spend their own money on the particular action if they wished to do so. The executive is exercising a distinct Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibility,Ã¢â¬ rather than serving as an agent of the stockholders or the customers or the employees, only if he spends the money in a different way than they would have spent it. But if he does this, he is in effect imposing taxes, on the one hand, and deciding how the tax proceeds shall be spent, on the other. This process raises political questions on two levels: principle and consequences. On the level of political principle, the imposition of taxes and the expenditure of tax proceeds are govÃ ernmental functions. We have established elabÃ orate constitutional, parliamentary and judicial provisions to control these functions, to assure that taxes are imposed so far as possible in acÃ cordance with the preferences and desires of the publicÃ¢â¬âafter all, Ã¢â¬Å"taxation without repreÃ sentationÃ¢â¬ was one of the battle cries of the American Revolution. We have a system of checks and balances to separate the legislaÃ tive function of imposing taxes and enacting expenditures from the executive function of collecting taxes and administering expendiÃ ture programs and from the judicial function of mediating disputes and interpreting the law. Here the businessmanÃ¢â¬âself-selected or appointed directly or indirectly by stockholdÃ ersÃ¢â¬âis to be simultaneously legislator, execuÃ tive and, jurist. He is to decide whom to tax by how much and for what purpose, and he is to spend the proceedsÃ¢â¬âall this guided only by general exhortations from on high to restrain inflation, improve the environment, fight poverty and so on and on. The whole justification for permitting the corporate executive to be selected by the stockholders is that the executive is an agent serving the interests of his principal. This jusÃ tification disappears when the corporate exÃ ecutive imposes taxes and spends the proÃ ceeds for Ã¢â¬Å"socialÃ¢â¬ purposes. He becomes in effect a public employee, a civil servant, even though he remains in name an employee of a private enterprise. On grounds of political principle, it is intolerable that such civil serÃ vantsÃ¢â¬âinsofar as their actions in the name of social responsibility are real and not just winÃ dow-dressingÃ¢â¬âshould be selected as they are now. If they are to be civil servants, then they must be elected through a political process. If they are to impose taxes and make expendiÃ tures to foster Ã¢â¬Å"socialÃ¢â¬ objectives, then politiÃ cal machinery must be set up to make the asÃ sessment of taxes and to determine through a political process the objectives to be served. This is the basic reason why the doctrine of Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibilityÃ¢â¬ involves the acceptance of the socialist view that political mechanisms, not market mechanisms, are the appropriate way to determine the allocation of scarce reÃ sources to alternative uses. On the grounds of consequences, can the corporate executive in fact discharge his alÃ leged Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibilities? Ã¢â¬ On the other hand, suppose he could get away with spending the stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ or customersÃ¢â¬â¢ or employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ money. How is he to know how to spend it? He is told that he must contribute to fighting inflation. How is he to know what acÃ tion of his will contribute to that end? He is presumably an expert in running his companyÃ¢â¬âin producing a product or selling it or financing it. But nothing about his selection makes him an expert on inflation. Will his holdÃ ing down the price of his product reduce inflaÃ tionary pressure? Or, by leaving more spending power in the hands of his customers, simply divert it elsewhere? Or, by forcing him to produce less because of the lower price, will it simply contribute to shortages? Even if he could anÃ swer these questions, how much cost is he justiÃ fied in imposing on his stockholders, customers and employees for this social purpose? What is his appropriate share and what is the appropriÃ ate share of others? And, whether he wants to or not, can he get away with spending his stockholdersÃ¢â¬â¢, cusÃ tomersÃ¢â¬â¢ or employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ money? Will not the stockholders fire him? (Either the present ones or those who take over when his actions in the name of social responsibility have reÃ duced the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s profits and the price of its stock. ) His customers and his employees can desert him for other producers and emÃ ployers less scrupulous in exercising their soÃ cial responsibilities. This facet of Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibilityÃ¢â¬ docÃ trine is brought into sharp relief when the doctrine is used to justify wage restraint by trade unions. The conflict of interest is naked and clear when union officials are asked to subordinate the interest of their members to some more general purpose. If the union offiÃ cials try to enforce wage restraint, the consequence is likely to be wildcat strikes, rankÃ -and-file revolts and the emergence of strong competitors for their jobs. We thus have the ironic phenomenon that union leadersÃ¢â¬âat least in the U. S. Ã¢â¬âhave objected to GovernÃ ment interference with the market far more consistently and courageously than have business leaders. The difficulty of exercising Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibilityÃ¢â¬ illustrates, of course, the great virtue of private competitive enterpriseÃ¢â¬âit forces people to be responsible for their own actions and makes it difficult for them to Ã¢â¬Å"exploitÃ¢â¬ other people for either selfish or unselfish purposes. They can do goodÃ¢â¬âbut only at their own expense. Many a reader who has followed the arguÃ ment this far may be tempted to remonstrate that it is all well and good to speak of GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s having the responsibility to imÃ pose taxes and determine expenditures for such Ã¢â¬Å"socialÃ¢â¬ purposes as controlling polluÃ tion or training the hard-core unemployed, but that the problems are too urgent to wait on the slow course of political processes, that the exercise of social responsibility by busiÃ nessmen is a quicker and surer way to solve pressing current problems. Aside from the question of factÃ¢â¬âI share Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s skepticism about the benefits that can be expected from Ã¢â¬Å"those who affected to trade for the public goodÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âthis argument must be rejected on grounds of principle. What it amounts to is an assertion that those who favor the taxes and expenditures in question have failed to persuade a majority of their fellow citizens to be of like mind and that they are seeking to attain by undemocratic procedures what they cannot attain by democratic proceÃ dures. In a free society, it is hard for Ã¢â¬Å"evilÃ¢â¬ people to do Ã¢â¬Å"evil,Ã¢â¬ especially since one anÃ¢â¬â¢s good is anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s evil. I have, for simplicity, concentrated on the special case of the corporate executive, exÃ cept only for the brief digression on trade unions. But precisely the same argument apÃ plies to the newer phenomenon of calling upon stockholders to require corporations to exercise social responsibility (the recent G. M crusade for example). In most of these cases, what is in effect involved is some stockholders trying to get other stockholders (or customers or employees) to contribute against their will to Ã¢â¬Å"socialÃ¢â¬ causes favored by the activists. InÃ sofar as they succeed, they are again imposing taxes and spending the proceeds. The situation of the individual proprietor is somewhat different. If he acts to reduce the returns of his enterprise in order to exercise his Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibility,Ã¢â¬ he is spending his own money, not someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. If he wishes to spend his money on such purposes, that is his right, and I cannot see that there is any obÃ jection to his doing so. In the process, he, too, may impose costs on employees and cusÃ tomers. However, because he is far less likely than a large corporation or union to have moÃ nopolistic power, any such side effects will tend to be minor. Of course, in practice the doctrine of social responsibility is frequently a cloak for actions that are justified on other grounds rather than a reason for those actions. To illustrate, it may well be in the long run interest of a corporation that is a major employer in a small community to devote resources to providing amenities to that community or to improving its government. That may make it easier to attract desirable employees, it may reduce the wage bill or lessen losses from pilferage and sabotage or have other worthwhile effects. Or it may be that, given the laws about the deductibility of corporate charitable contributions, the stockholders can contribute more to chariÃ ties they favor by having the corporation make the gift than by doing it themselves, since they can in that way contribute an amount that would otherwise have been paid as corporate taxes. In each of theseÃ¢â¬âand many similarÃ¢â¬âcases, there is a strong temptation to rationalize these actions as an exercise of Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibility. Ã¢â¬ In the present climate of opinion, with its wide spread aversion to Ã¢â¬Å"capitalism,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"profits,Ã¢â¬ the Ã¢â¬Å"soulless corporationÃ¢â¬ and so on, this is one way for a corporation to generate goodwill as a by-product of expenditures that are entirely justified in its own self-interest. It would be inconsistent of me to call on corporate executives to refrain from this ypÃ ocritical window-dressing because it harms the foundations of a free society. That would be to call on them to exercise a Ã¢â¬Å"social reÃ sponsibilityÃ¢â¬ ! If our institutions, and the attiÃ tudes of the public make it in their self-interÃ est to cloak their actions in this way, I cannot summon much indignation to denounce them. At the same time, I can express admiration for those individual proprietors or owners of closely held corporations or stockholders of more broadly held corporations who disdain such tactics as approaching fraud. Whether blameworthy or not, the use of the cloak of social responsibility, and the nonsense spoken in its name by influential and prestiÃ gious businessmen, does clearly harm the founÃ dations of a free society. I have been impressed time and again by the schizophrenic character of many businessmen. They are capable of being extremely farsighted and clearheaded in matters that are internal to their businesses. They are incredibly shortsighted and muddleÃ headed in matters that are outside their businesses but affect the possible survival of busiÃ ness in general. This shortsightedness is strikingly exemplified in the calls from many businessmen for wage and price guidelines or controls or income policies. There is nothing that could do more in a brief period to destroy a market system and replace it by a centrally conÃ trolled system than effective governmental conÃ trol of prices and wages. The shortsightedness is also exemplified in speeches by businessmen on social responÃ sibility. This may gain them kudos in the short run. But it helps to strengthen the already too prevalent view that the pursuit of profits is wicked and immoral and must be curbed and controlled by external forces. Once this view is adopted, the external forces that curb the market will not be the social consciences, however highly developed, of the pontificating executives; it will be the iron fist of Government bureaucrats. Here, as with price and wage controls, businessmen seem to me to reveal a suicidal impulse. The political principle that underlies the market mechanism is unanimity. In an ideal free market resting on private property, no individual can coerce any other, all cooperaÃ tion is voluntary, all parties to such cooperaÃ tion benefit or they need not participate. There are no values, no Ã¢â¬Å"socialÃ¢â¬ responsibilities in any sense other than the shared values and responsibilities of individuals. Society is a collection of individuals and of the various groups they voluntarily form. The political principle that underlies the political mechanism is conformity. The indiÃ vidual must serve a more general social interÃ estÃ¢â¬âwhether that be determined by a church or a dictator or a majority. The individual may have a vote and say in what is to be done, but if he is overruled, he must conform. It is appropriate for some to require others to contribute to a general social purpose whether they wish to or not. Unfortunately, unanimity is not always feasiÃ ble. There are some respects in which conformity appears unavoidable, so I do not see how one can avoid the use of the political mechaÃ nism altogether. But the doctrine of Ã¢â¬Å"social responsibilityÃ¢â¬ taken seriously would extend the scope of the political mechanism to every human activity. It does not differ in philosophy from the most explicitly collectivist doctrine. It differs only by professing to believe that collectivist ends can be attained without collectivist means. That is why, in my book Capitalism and Freedom, I have called it a Ã¢â¬Å"fundamentally subversive doctrineÃ¢â¬ in a free society, and have said that in such a society, Ã¢â¬Å"there is one and only one social responsibility of businessÃ¢â¬âto use it resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud. Ã¢â¬